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What do I need to do?
When accessing websites using a web browser, ensure you use the latest available version of the browser – whether that is Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari or another browser. Using the latest version keeps you safe online because you're using the most up-to-date security settings.
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Although TLS 1.0, when configured properly, has no known security vulnerabilities, newer protocols are designed better to address the potential for new vulnerabilities.
The PCI Data Security Standard 3.1 recommends disabling “early TLS”:
“SSL and early TLS are not considered strong cryptography and cannot be used as a security control after June 30, 2016 [without a mitigation strategy for disabling it before June 2018].
The best response is to disable SSL entirely and migrate to a more modern encryption protocol, which at the time of publication is a minimum of TLS v1.1, although entities are strongly encouraged to consider TLS v1.2.”
We need to be PCI-compliant to take online payments at the University. It is not sufficient to merely disable TLS 1.0 on our transaction tracking system as the requirement extends to any system that initiates a payment, including car parking, printer credits, the Warwick website, etc.
Your guide to writing a Discursive Essay
A discursive essay thoroughly investigates an argument by offering two opposing perspectives. It's a practical method of establishing the writer's opinion on a topic and persuading one's stance by exploring the reasons why each view may or may not be valid. The author usually maintains a calm and neutral stance throughout the text to establish an unbiased and informative argument.
1. Define your topic
Before you begin your essay you need to define what the topic is. Discursive essay topics can be about anything, but they are primarily used to argue ideas about controversial topics such as gun control or abortion. You should decide at this point which side you are supporting.
The foundation of any well structured essay is an outline. A discursive essay should have:
- Introduction: The Introduction clearly states the topic and explains why it is important.
- Body: The Body contains the arguments and logic for both sides.
- Conclusion: The Conclusion is where you establish your personal stance on the argument and explain why. Here you explain why it is difficult to establish a solid stance on the topic.
Image source: http://larrybuttrose.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/discursive.html
3. Write 4-6 different points to include in body
"Discursive writing does not argue for or against a point throughout the essay".
Knowing in advance which points you will discuss will help during the actual writing process. Make sure that each point has a counterargument. For example, if you have 3 points for one side, you should have 3 points against it to balance it out. This ensures your argument is unbiased as well as thorough.
Hint: Try to choose strong and valid points that would be difficult to argue against. This makes it more exciting and informative to the reader when you DO introduce its counter-argument.
The points should descend in order from strongest argument to least supportive argument. Alternate back and forth between each perspective to illustrate the argument. Think of it like a "ping-pong" match. The body of the outline should appear as follows:
Each individual argument is a paragraph. The amount of paragraphs is up to your discretion, but if this is for a class there should be at least 4.
4. Fill in the content
Now that you've fully outlined your essay, it's time to flesh it out. Establish credibility by citing valid sources. Don't believe everything you read. Look for scientific studies or valid statistics. Hard facts enrich any argument.
Your tone should be neutral throughout the body, giving each point its turn to truly speak. Try to be as thorough and unbiased as possible.
5. Write a conclusion
In the last paragraph you will wrap up the argument by stating your personal stance on the issue. Try to explain why you feel the way you do, and if you don't actually have an opinion, try to define as to why that is. Mention again why the issue is important and should be evaluated further.
- Stay in formal third person perspective throughout the body.
- Before you begin writing, you should create a "spider-diagram", or "mind-map" to help clearly relate your points.
- When writing the separate arguments, try to pretend as though a person from that specific viewpoint "has the floor". Pretend as though you are trying to convince another person of that viewpoint, even if you don't necessarily agree with it. Make sure to keep a third person writing style, though.
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