Essay on Unification of Nepal by Prithivi Narayan Shah and Other Rulers
The Modern history
Prithivi Narayan Shah was the great king and a leader of Nepal. His contributions are boon to the history of Nepal from unifying the boundaries of our country to avoiding other countries to rule over us. To concur the three kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley Prithivi Narayan Shah had to motivate and finance his army. All the government services and offices were paid by land grants called Jagir.Jagir land system is the system of granting land to the government staffs partly emerged from the sufficient cash circulated in the then underdeveloped country’s economy. Simply it is said as a condition of lack of enough cash to cover all governmental expenses. Prithivi Narayan Shah followed a powerful practice called pajani. Pajani can be defined as an annual review of individual performance which is followed by hiring, firing, dismissal, promotion , transfer or reappointment.
Prithivi Narayan Shah was born on 27th of Poush 1779, son of Narabhupal Shah and Kaushalyawati. He was trained and taught by his eldest mother,Chandrapravawati. He had learned Ramayana, Mahabharat, and Shukranty along with swordsmanship.
He was married to the daughter of HemkarnaSen but could not take her home because of culture differences.
Narabhupal could not stand the humiliation of his defeat in Nuwakot against the forces of Kantipur and Lalitpur. Thus Prithivi Narayan Shah ascended the throne at the age of 20 on 1799.
From the early age,Prithivi Narayan Shah was captivated by Kathmandu valley and thought of unification. He planned to attack Nuwakot with KajiBirajThapaMagar. But Thapa had delayed in sending the troops to Prithivi Narayan Shah. This was taken as a betrayal and so Shah had attacked Nuwakot under Maheshwor Pant.
The troops had lost badly which gave a lesson to Shah about the troop’s weaknesses. Prithivi Narayan Shah then boosted the troops with training and new armors bought from Banaras.
According to his uncle, UdhyotSen suggested him to win over Nepal and Gorkha. Thus,Gorkha signed a treaty with Lamjung quoting that both will have a harmonious relation with each other and Gorkha’s eastward expansion will not be interfered.
To win over Nuwakot,Prithivi Narayan Shah gave his daughter named Bilaskumari to the king of Salyan, Ranabhim Singh. This was done to stop the west from attacking and treating with Bhaktapur with a promise to grant Sindhupalchok and Palanchowk along with keeping a friendly relation with Kantipur.
Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered nuwakot when they attacked it for the second time in 1801 BS. JayantaRana who was an in charge of Gorkha troops during the reign of Narabhupal Shah was asked to rejoin Gorkha but the offer was rejected. To find out the answer, it was seen that he was already on asylum under Jaya Prakash Malla. For this, JayanataRana was caught and killed in Belkot.
In 1814, Gorkha attacked Kirtipur but lost nearly facing death. Kalu Pandey had lost his life during the battle. so to win over the valley , Prithivi Narayan Shah planned on the economic blockade. He had control over the northern route to Tibet. Makwanpur was on the way of the blocked which was attacked on 1819. Gurgain Khan had sent aid to Makwanpur where 1700 Muslim soldiers and 700 weapons were destroyed.
Again in 1821, Kirtipur was attacked for the second time under Surpratap Shah. He lost his left eye in the battle. After the win in Makwanpur, kirtipurwsas blocked from all sides for three months due to which KajiDhanawanta had to surrender to Gorkha.
On the verse of winning of Kantipur , Jaya Prakash Mallaseeked aid from the East India Company about 2400 armies. By taking the advantage of the geographical condition of the hilly region, Gorkha attacked them on the way and 1600 English soldiers had died. On the night of Indrajatra in 1825 BS, Prithivi Narayan Shah encircled Kantipur palace with Vasma Raj Pandey, Kehar Singh Basnyat ,Tularam Pandey. Jaya Prakash set fired from the gun powder due to which Tularam died. He ran away and Prithivi Narayan Shah took over the place and watched the IndraJatra.
To win over Patan, Prithivi Narayan Shah had sent an envoy to Shree Harsha Mishra to surrrender .He had accepted the envoy. Jaya Prakash Malla and TejNarasinghMalla ran away to Bhaktapur. The six Pradhans who were on power to employ and deploy the King were killed.
In 1826 29th of Kartik, Gorkhali army battled against Bhaktapur. RanajitMalla refused to hand over the Kings of Patan and Kantipur. Malla also did not want any bloodshed. But after 1700 armucausalties and 500 houses destroyed RanjitMallasignalled surrender throwing his crown from his window. After capturing the Kings, Jaya Prakash was sent to Pashupati as his will, Ranajit was sent to Kashi and TejNarasingh was put behind the bars. And thus, Bhaktapur was conquered too.
The unification was continued for years and years. He had supports on armies and armors from various places. Prithivi Narayan Shah is still taken as the greater leader who was devoted to his mother land. Nepal had reached uptoMechi in the east. He died at the age of 52 on Magh 1 1831. After the death of Prithivi Narayan Shah, his eldest son ,Pratap Singh Shah took over the throne who later died after three years of reign. RajendraLaxmi Shah, his wife took the responsibility along with the help of her brother in law, Bahadur Shah. They added more territory to Nepal. But the conflict between them created some obstacles in the process. RajendraLaxmi Shah died after 10 years of unification process. The son of RajendraLaxmi and Pratap Singh Shah, RanaBahadur Shah took over the throne after turning 18 years old, dethroning his uncle, Bahadur Shah. RanaBahadur had sent his uncle to jail in a fraud case of using money unnecessarily. It was said, RanaBahadur was killed at jailed by pouring hot oil on him.
Writer: Susaan Basel
Filed Under: NepalTagged With: Essay on Unification of Nepal, History of Modern Nepal, History of Nepal, History of Unification of Nepal, Nepal History, prithvi narayan shah history, Unification Campaign of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, Unification of Nepal
The credit of creating the Greater Nepal goes to a single person named PrithviNarayanShah whose courage and vision was the main reason behind the united Nepal we live in today. This visionary king was born in Gorkha on Poush 27, 1779 BS, as a first son to King NarabhupalShah and queen Kausalyawati making him the crown prince and heir to the throne. He had a vision, to conquer all the small kingdoms and create a larger nation, which he never gave up on and was determined to fulfill it.
From the time when he was just a small child, he had every quality required to be a good leader and King. Wrestling and swimming always caught his interest and his courage was no less during childhood than what it was during his young age or even old age. It is mentioned in history that he had received a blessing from his family priest Gorakhnath as well (he will conquer the land he steps on).
He ascended the throne of Gorkha after the death of his father in 1799 BS at the age of 20. His first work after ascending the throne was to train his soldiers and start the process of expanding the territory of his kingdom. He had conquered most of the neighboring kingdoms and had developed friendship with the Kings of the three main cities that are Kathmandu, Lalitpur (Patan) and Bhaktapur. From the trade point of view, Nuwakot was the perfect place and also Kathmandu valley depended on Nuwakot for trading purposes. So, he attacked Nuwakot but could not conquer it in the first time and in his second attempt, he successfully conquered the kingdom. He liked the beautiful valley of Kathmandu so much that he desired to conquer it. He first attacked in Kirtipur but was defeated twice and also lost one of his bravest army chief KaluPandey. Hoever, he did not give up and he successfully won the kingdom in his third attempt. After that, his target turned over to Kathmandu and successfully attacked it in 1825 on the occasion of Indrajatra, then on the list came Patan and then Bhaktapur. Although he had developed friendship (Mit) relations with the king of Bhaktapur, the bond did not stop him from attacking instead he let his Mitjiu either surrender or flea from there.
After conquering these kingdoms, he turned his attention to the eastern and western kingdoms. He had successfully extended his territory to Darjeeling, now in India and while he was planning an attack on Sikkim, he fell sick. His health worsened and he died at the age of 56. Although he gave most of his time to the expansion of his territory, he also laid out the guidelines for governance, nationalism and foreign policy in his DivyaUpadesh (Divine Advice). He laid out nine principles which formed the foundation of Nepali political and national life.
He was determined in his quest to extend his territory and he did not consider any type of relations seriously rather used them solely for the fulfillment of the purpose. No matter how cruel or strict Prithvi Narayan Shah was, it was this cruelty as well as his courage that made him able to fulfill his wish to unite the small kingdoms and create a greater Nepal. He was also responsible for developing the feeling of unity in diversity among the people of Nepal as he considered Nepal as the garden of four caste and 36 sub-castes. If it wasn’t for him, we might not have been able to feel proud to call ourselves Nepali. It was his courage that kept Nepal free from British invasion and also brought unity in diversity among the people of Nepal.